Wednesday, May 27, 2009

daquan jenkins

daquan jenkins
Advisory 9-1

Just as the 1830's have been called the age of Jackson, it is probably fair to refer to the 1930's, politically at least, as the age of FDR. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the dominant political presence of the age, serving to reinspire faith in the presidency after Herbert Hoover who was blamed by many for causing the stock market crash and subsequent depression. Roosevelt almost singlehandly forged a new political alliance between the working classes of the Northern cities, the farmers of the West and South (both black and white), and generally every group hurt by the Depression. Roosevelt's policies for recovery, his use of the radio in order to talk directly to the nation in his "fireside chats," and his appeals for the government to remember the "forgotten man" all won him massive support among the people.
This support resulted in his winning re-election in 1936 with all but eight electoral votes cast in his favor. Moreover despite the fact that no president had ever run for a third term, Roosevelt's popularity gained him victory in 1940 (and 1944 for that matter). This cover, published in the midst of the 1940 campaign season, show Roosevelt wearing many hats (quite literally) as he attempts to portray himself as a man of the people and as a representative of a number of segments of the population that he hoped would again vote for him in November of that year Despite the massive margins of victory which Roosevelt garnered and the general public support he received throughout his presidency, he was far from universally loved.
Especially during his second term, many conservatives (including many Southern Democrats who disagreed with his leanings on race) came to view his New Deal policies as unjustified and unconstitutional extensions of the power of the federal government. This growing conservative opposition resulted in Roosevelt being forced to step back with some of his initiatives lest they be defeated. In addition to the political opposition he suffered, Roosevelt came to be passionately hated by upper class Northerners who viewed him as a "traitor to his class" because of his policies and rhetoric. Many went so far as to even refuse to mention Roosevelt's name referring to him only as "that man." Given the target audience of the New Yorker, one suspects that this cover may actually be more a subtle form of mockery then a celebration of FDR's populism
In January, the number of unemployed in America reaches four million.
On February 10, in Chicago more than one hundred people are arrested for distributing whiskey. Bootlegging has increased as opposition grows to Prohibition, instituted in 1919 by the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
On June 17, President Herbert Hoover signs into law the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, setting tariffs on imported goods at the highest rates in American history.
On July 3, President Hoover signs into law an act establishing the Veterans Administration.
On July 21, the Senate confirms the London Naval Treaty, in which the United States, Great Britain, and Japan agree to limitations on the size of their navies. The treaty supplements the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which also includes limitation agreements.
On August 8, President Hoover makes public a federal report stating that one...
[The entire page is 3715 words long]
The stock-market crash of October 1929 set the tone for the congressional elections of 1930. With more than five million people unemployed, fear and uncertainty gripped large portions of the electorate. Democrats campaigned primarily on the issue of the economy, accusing the Republican president and the Republican-controlled Congress of failing to deal with the yearlong economic downturn. Prohibition was a secondary, but important, issue in the states. Alignment for or against Prohibition was nonpartisan, some Democrats and some Republicans falling on either side of the issue, The New York Times estimated that prior to the 1930 elections 344 members of the House of Representatives supported Prohibition, but after the elections only 298 congressmen-elect supported it.
In the United States the greatest legacy of the years 1930-1939 was the creation of the modern bureaucratic welfare state, which arose in response to the worst economic collapse in national history. Unlike other economic crises, the Great Depression was not short-lived. It persisted throughout the 1930s, affecting all aspects of society. The critical political controversy of the decade focused on how government ought to be used to bring the Depression to an end. Every political quarter proposed solutions. In the desperate times of severe economic crisis patience often grew thin, and debates became strident. The major political contest took place between Republicans and Democrats. Together these parties consistently drew about 97 percent of ballots cast, and the debate over how to end the Depression was generally carried out on ideological terrain defined.....
Republican Herbert Hoover was president when the stock market crashed on 29 October 1929. This crash on Wall Street in New York was part of a series of events — a sort of chain reaction — in which unemployment, credit contraction, deflation, depressed agricultural prices, and international problems all played parts. With the economy spiraling downward, the pressing question became what, if anything, government should do. President Hoover's first response to the onset of the Depression was to allow traditional market forces to make correctives with a minimum of government intervention.
In this view the overheated economy would self-adjust if given time. As Andrew Mellon, Hoover's secretary of the treasury, declared, it was necessary to "purge the rottenness out of the system" by allowing the downturn to run its expected course. Hoover himself asserted that "Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncements. Economic wounds must be healed.Using the democratic measuring stick of popular votes, there can be no doubt that Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democrats, and the New Deal dominated the 1930s. Roosevelt's take-charge, action-oriented, pragmatic brand of politics was welcomed by most Americans who had watched as the number of shanty towns — called "Hoovervilles" by many — grew larger. Alongside poverty, strikes by industrial workers increased and were sometimes violent and bloody. Voices from the political Left and Right captured people's attention in ways that they had not done in pre-Depression years.
In response Roosevelt's political program promised a reshuffling of the cards of American government, economy, and society in a "New Deal" for the American.When Franklin D. Roosevelt took office on 4 March 1933, unemployment was at 25 percent nationwide. In Toledo, Ohio, three-quarters of those looking for work could find none. There was no federal welfare system, no federal unemployment insurance, no public housing. When people did not find work, they turned of necessity to charitable organizations that were usually run by churches and synagogues. The enormity of the Depression overwhelmed these traditional means of aid to the needy, and it became clear to the president that government-run relief efforts were required. Within exactly one hundred days of taking office, Roosevelt introduced fifteen major legislative bills to Congress.

Donye Harris 1970's

In the 1970s there was high inflation. There was energy shortage because of world wide oil shortage. There were low supplies of things like jobs, houses, cars and many other things. The economics of the 1970s was just as bad as it is today, its just more money.

During the energy shortage, there was also oil shortage. All around the world nation started to conserve their non-renewable oil supplies. They did this to maybe have some in the near future. They began to depend on the Middle East for oil because they didn’t have enough.

While the energy shortage was happening, a war started between the Arabs and Israel . It was oil called the “Arab Oil Embargo” that was placed on the west by the Arabs. The largest oil producers were Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait. Because of this, gas prices would go from 35 cents to 90 cents.

There were high demands in the 70s. There were a lot of unemployed people. This was oil because of high inflation. People began to expect continuous increases in the price of goods. This caused demand which pushed up prices.

There were fewer jobs, cars and many other things in the 70s. President Jimmy Carter tried to help the unemployment. He tried to help them by increasing government spending. He also established voluntary wage. Something that caused high inflation was that investors and creditors had no confidence in the bank system.

The three main reasons to high inflation was first, it was because until the 1980s no influential policy makers until Paul Volcker became Chairman of the Federal Reserve who placed a sufficiently high priority on stopping inflation. Second, the policies of the 60s left economic policy makers of the 70s with bad dilemmas. They basically had bad luck which also led to high inflation. Third, it was that the great depression made it hard to believe that the business cycle was a fluctuation around rather than a shortfall below potential output and potential employment.

The poor economy was mainly because of the horrible amounts of unemployment. There were returning soldiers from Vietnam and the woman work force. It went from 3.3 percent of unemployed people to 8 percent of unemployed people. All of this almost caused another depression.

Some people are even saying that the 2009 economy is starting to be the same as the 70s economy. The oil crisis was really bad. With all of the gas prices raising more demands began to happen.

The 1970s economy didn’t get better till the 1980s because of the chairman. It took a long time for it to get better because nobody wanted to take the chairman position.

The economy of the 1970s was bad. With all of the gas prices raisin and the amounts of unemployed people. Also cars and other things, hopefully the economy we are in now will only have progress and won’t get worse. Like the war stopping, already the gas prices have gotten lower so it should only get better.

Chole Muldrow- 1970's economy

Chloe’ Muldrow
March 17, 2009
Section 9-1

During the 70’s the economy was disappointing the expectations that Americans built up during the past World War II years. We had about two oil crises of 1973-74 and 1979 that served as bookends for slow economic growth. This led to a new term being coined which was called stagflation. It led a long lesson for great institutions of the U.S towards big business, the government and etc. of their powerless affect to the economy.
Since the Great Depression the 1970’s was the most tragic time for the American economy. Shortly after a quarter of this century the growth and prosperity, the downturn of this century hit with a powerful force. Cost went up, unemployment soared, exports were low, and almost every economic indicator went downhill during the 1970’s.
The Nixon, Ford and Carter administrations tried a numerous amount of things to resuscitate the economy but instead it brought more burdens because unintended problems. In 1972 the U.S. decided to sale the Soviet Union millions of wheat in effort to reduce the trade deficit. This caused many problems in the year 1973. Te 1970’s proved to be a decade of tumultuous change for the automobile industry in the U.S. This caught first in the economic turn oil, price control, and then in the energy crises of 1973-74 and 1979.
Stagflation was an economic recession basically. People began to loose their jobs and things on the market began to get higher every second. Nothing was considered a reasonable price. People began to beg for their Social Security to come because they began to believe there was nothing left that they could afford. The inflation helped workers and retirees.
The government needs for funds began to get bigger and bigger and led greater government borrowing. This pushed interest’s rates and increased costs for businesses. From this going on unemployment rose to very uncomfortable levels. They had to find a way to fix this big problem.
In 1977 president Jimmy Carter tried to help out our economy crises. He tried to combat economic increasing government spending. He also established voluntary wage and price guidelines. These two plans did not work properly at all. They failed tremendously.
In the 1970’s we saw the software contract programming industry growing rapidly. They were so good that they soon became known as the “Professional Services”. They were given this name because a known fact was given that they provided a board range of consulting and designing services. They also would even program it for you if needed. This software product was established as a viable source of software for people who often use computers.
In the beginning of the 1970’s people believed the Software from Vendor would meet all of there needs. They didn’t think it would be a problem with this company at all. By time the 80’s came this Software was to most popular out there. In 71 ICP had there first annual million dollar award program. The program recognized Software products that made over a million dollars in revenue.
During this time their were only twenty nine software products that actually made the list. By time 1976 came this program grown to 100 products that made the list. This was just from 64 software companies imagine if it was more companies. Only four of these companies passed $20 million dollars. A company name Cincom’s Total database management system received an award for $50 million dollars.

The first invention of the PC was made in the mid-1970. A little after these PC’s was created they led to the founding of first PC software firms. They made software’s like Microsoft, Software Arts, etc. Creating these made the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. Besides the success the software industry was making many realized this was a major investment opportunity